This is an interesting question. Intuitively, the logic is simple: Yeast is used to make bread and beer, so eating bread and beer could lead to yeast overgrowth in the mouth and digestive track.
If you do a quick Internet search, you will find multiple self proclaimed experts and practitioners who will try to convince you that the yeast in beer and bread can cause yeast infections.
In this case, intuition and the self proclaimed experts are wrong. If someone tries to tell you that people get yeast infections from the yeast in beer and bread, then you should stop listening to them, because they are either intentionally lying to you, or they simply have no idea what they are talking about. Here is why:
All yeast are not the same! Although beer and bread are made from yeast, they are not made from the type of yeast that causes infection. Beer and bread are typically made from a type of yeast called Sacharomyces Cervisiae, which do not cause infection. The types of yeast infections that people get are from several different kinds of yeast, none of which are Sacharomyces Cervisiae.
That being said, carbohydrates (which are found in beer and bread) can feed yeast. And consuming too much bread, beer, and other carbohydrates can cause health problems, but those problems are not from the yeast that are in them.