Eating Food With Niacin: Are You Getting Your Daily Intake?
Niacin: A General Overview
Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is typically associated with the catabolism (degradation) of foods to produce energy and anabolism (biosynthetic construction) of specific macromolecules. Niacin coenzymes are required by hundreds of enzymes in the body for proper functioning. The main coenzymes associated with niacin are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).
Niacin: The Importance of NAD and NADP
NAD and NADP are critical for a particular reaction within the biological systems of the body, known as oxidation-reduction reactions. Put simply oxidation-reduction reactions involve the donation and acceptance of electrons. This electron transfer is responsible for nearly all cellular functions, as it provides means of energy for the body to accomplish all daily necessities. NAD is primarily responsible for the catabolism (degradation) of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and alcohol for energy production. NADP is primarily responsible for the anabolism (biosynthetic construction) for the required synthesis of certain macromolecules.
Niacin: Daily Recommended Amount
The daily recommended intake amount of niacin for healthy men is 16 milligrams. This daily recommended intake is an average, your actual requirements for niacin may be slightly different due to age, location, diet, and lifestyle.
Niacin Rich Foods
Niacin is found naturally in a variety of common foods; cereals, meats, fish. The following is a list of foods by name, amount, and milligrams niacin delivered.
- Fortified cereal, 1 cup, 20-27 milligrams
- Light Tuna (water packed), 3 ounces, 11.0 milligrams
- Salmon, 3 ounces, 8.5 milligrams
- Chicken, 3 ounces, 7.0 milligrams
- Unfortified cereal, 1 cup, 5-7 milligrams
- Turkey, 3 ounces, 5.5 milligrams
- Dry roasted peanuts, 1 ounce, 3.8 milligrams
- Beef, 3 ounces, 3.1 milligrams
- Enriched pasta,1 cup, 2.3 milligrams
- Lentils, 1 cup, 2.1 milligrams
- Lima beans, 1 cup, 1.8 milligrams
- Slice whole wheat bread, 1.3 milligrams
- Coffee, 1 cup, 0.5 milligrams
Niacin Deficiencies and Toxicity
Pellagra, severe niacin deficiency, is now a rare condition. It effects specific systems in the body and was commonly diagnosed by use of the four D"s in the early 1900's. If the condition of pellagra is left untreated, it is ultimately fatal. The consumption of niacin yielding toxic effects is also rare.
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Sources: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/niacin/NS_patient-niacin http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/niacin/